Written by: Zhuang Ruihua
Abstract: This paper combines the results of 100 years of life science and archaeology, Put forward a group of theories that are different from the mainstream theories: first, “human” only refers to modern people, not including Neanderthals who are both “people” but different “species”; 2. Humans formed 300 to 300,000 years ago, It is from the former human gens to adapt to ecological changes to form “self-interest, altruism, overall altruism”, “master instinct gene”, Before the guidance, human beings chose to build the “harmonious-civilized life quality state” of “harmonious coexistence” living mode, target value, system culture and social organization, Gradually mutation genetic evolution into modern human; 3. The essence of human life is “harmony-civilization”, The fundamental sign that distinguishes man from other animals is not upright, labour, sociality, etc., But the “harmony-civilized life quality” of human beings; IV. Archaeological research provides evidence that, China’s never-interrupted life inheritance gene-blood-cultural civilization inheritance and the concept of “a community with a shared future for mankind”, It is one of the mainstream carriers and representations of the historical context and essence of human civilization; 5. up to now, The “childhood” of human beings did not really understand the nature of self and life, Need for “re-enlightenment”.
Key words: self-interest, altruism, binary dependence, overall altruism, instinct, gene, human harmony-civilization, life quality, civilization
The renewal of a community with a shared future for mankind
Middle figure classification number: Q343.1-49 Reference code: A
“The essence and civilization of human life” is an important contemporary theoretical and practical problem. From the perspective of the composite study of life science and humanistic sociology, what factors dominate the formation and reproduction of human beings? What is the essential difference between humans and other animals? What the relationship between Chinese civilization and human civilization is.
1. Connotation of “human beings” and the formation of “symbol”
As early as 1975, the famous life scientist Edward Q. Wilson pointed out in his Social Biology that “in order to understand human nature, we must start from the origin and evolution of life”. To this end, we first need to clarify the connotation of “human beings”.
1. Human formation and origin
Human “formation” is different from its “origin”.
The origin of human beings is a long and unfinalized period of life. Chinese scholars believe that human beings originated two or three million years ago.
Human formation is a life phenomenon that appears in the essential properties of life movement different from other living bodies in a relatively certain spatio-temporal ecological environment. At the end of the last century, the same follows.
2, human connotation and formation of “symbol”
On the analysis of “the essence and civilization of human life”, there is an important prerequisite archaeological conclusion: the extinct Neanderthals and Denisovans and modern people are classified as “human family” and “human genus” but different “human species”.
The question naturally arises: does the defined “human” include both modern humans, Neanderthals (ni) and Denisovans (Dan)?
—— This problem is directly related to the nature and “mark” of human beings and other animals.
Here, the analysis of an important basis is: life science and archaeological discovery has revealed that in the long history of space-time, by the ecological environment variation, adapt to the ecological variation of the endocrine system, determine the biological traits of living “master gene” (i. e., “master instinct gene”) and the formation of the human physiological and psychological behavior, extended guidance of survival, target value and system culture and social factors, construct the human to form reproduction unique “life quality sequence structure chain” (hereinafter referred to as “human life quality”) and life process.[i]
In short, human formation itself is a life movement system and process of the “life quality” structure dominated by the “master control instinct gene” of the life body adapted to ecological variation.
Accordingly, if the answer to the connotation of “human” is “including”, so, in human “form”, because of modern people and people, Dan in the formation process of different ecological environment, endocrine system, “master instinct gene”, way of life, target value and cultural civilization, system social sex differences as high as 70-80% of the “human life quality”, natural lead to determine the different species movement of life essential attribute characteristics, lead to human and other animals “standard” set chaos.
—— This is true of the theory and practice of reality.
Therefore, although the DNA sequence and physiological habits of the human and modern people are quite similar, which can be described as “close relatives”, human scientific research has still firmly determined that “Homo sapiens”, as the ancestor of modern people, is “the only species under the human genus”.
Therefore, this paper believes that such “close relatives” should be excluded from “human”, so the following analysis on “standard” is developed ——
Upright, as a posture of animal limb behaviour, is not unique to humans;
Making tools is a way for many animals to survive, and it is not unique to humans;
Labour, Nepal people will also use tools, engage in “labour”, but, it is not human;
The giant brain, the man, has a bigger brain than humans;
Autonomy consciousness, many creatures in nature have the autonomous consciousness to governs the active response of nervous system and life organs;
Sociality, life science research believes that all animals live in the form of “social _ society”, so “sociality” is the basic life attribute of all “social _ society” species;
Should see, the so-called “mark” is actually a lot of animal life common physical behavior or physiological elements exist, or as “social” has “generic”, thus are not able to reflect the human life movement and form the particularity of reproduction “life quality”, cannot reflect unique human life “essence”, thus not as the difference between human and other animals fundamental “mark”.
In short, in the long historical period, “the quality of human life” is the unique essential form of human beings and the context of genetic evolution, so it can be regarded as the fundamental “symbol” between human beings and other animals.
At this point, the new questions are naturally mentioned before us:
What is the connotation and essential attribute characteristic of this “qualitative state of human life” and this “symbol”?
2. The essential attribute of “human life quality state”
1, the premise of exploration
More than 100 years of scientific research has provided an important premise for exploring this topic, that is, gene is the “main control” factor for guiding the formation and reproduction of human beings.
A basic conclusion of life science research is that today, “survival” is still the “first need” of human life, and this demand comes from the “master instinct gene” in the “genome” that contains all the genetic information of life.
Since the rediscovery of Mendel’s law in 1899-1909, William Johnson coined the word “genes” and life scientists began to deeply study the “relationship between” genes and humans “. Famous scientist Archibald Garrod summed up the academic consensus, ” Genes determine the direction of human development, while variation makes humans different from each other.”
To be clear, this “master” is not the only decision force, and thus cannot be trapped in “genetic determinism”. In the long process of human formation and reproduction, it can be seen that in addition to genetic factors, there are at least the ecological environment, sexual reproduction, ethnic relations, life consciousness, and the relationship between life formation sequence elements. However, scientific research has also proved that among the factors, the genes that dominate the characteristics of human life form are the most important, so that life scientists call them the “master gene” —— “the master instinct gene”.
2, the master control instinct gene and “human harmonious life quality”,
For nearly a century, research have found a clear answer to the genes and “quality” of life formed by the main human beings ——
As early as 1938, de Rijin, one of the founders of Palaeolithic archaeology in China, pointed out that life, with “coordination”, “connection” and “fusion”, is the “rising” force in the evolution of life.
In 2019, Wilson in the genesis summarizes 60 years life science research results put forward “altruism gene” concept, and points out that “in the history of all previous big shift, each from lower biological level towards higher biological level —— from cells to organisms, from organisms to social —— are inseparable from altruism”.
In the new century, the most significant is a major archaeological discovery made by researchers from the University of York and the University of Liverpool in 2021, revealing the formation context and attributes of the “human life quality” that enables human beings.[ii]
“Out of all the key transformations in human evolution, the modern human transformation occurred from 300,000 to 30,000 years ago,” the study said. Swedish scientist Swante Pabo, who won the 2022 Nobel Prize, revealed the genetic differences between existing humans and former humans while proving that modern humans first appeared in Africa about 300,000 years ago.
Report reveals that due to the variation of the ecological environment, before many groups of a endocrine system changes, the report pointed out, “we conclude that increasingly bad environment may lead to the change of human hormones and emotional reaction, leading to the increase of tolerance between groups, namely with ‘self domestication related the transformation of social behaviour”;
Although researchers use the word “may”, but the comprehensive scientific research in one hundred, can say, after long variation selection genetic evolution, the physiological change not only lead to “tolerance between groups” and “harmony, tolerance, interdependence” steady increase, more importantly, “once the physiological changes over a critical point, collaboration between groups may have become a stable state, lead to increased dependence on various resources and high social connections, and lay the foundation for social and cultural change”.
The above findings have multiple significance ——
First, to reveal the genetic attributes of the survival instinct. The gene that controls the formation of human beings is not only the coexistence and dependence of selfish and altruism, but also the “survival instinct gene” of “harmony” as the main constitution “;
Second, this “master instinct gene”, while its own variation and evolution, combined with ecological environment, life consciousness, sexual reproduction and other factors, guiding the former human group and other ” groups may have become a stable state, leading to an increase in the dependence on various resources and high social connections;
Third, the above main control power factors make this human ancestor finally choose a higher survival probability, better survival state and quality, more frequent communication, increasing activity field and scale, more survival advantages of the “harmonious” quality of the subject survival goal value and “harmonious coexistence” subject survival mode;
Fourth, to lay the foundation for the construction of a “harmonious” qualitative social and cultural reform “;
Fifth, what is more far-reaching significance is that the causes and consequences of the new species are presented as a “two-way evolution structure chain” ——
Ecological environment variation endocrine system changes form binary dependent overall altruistic master instinct gene + multiple life dynamic increased tolerance between groups form stable state resources between groups and high social connections dependent increase choice advantage “harmonious” mass survival goal value-way of survival to build a “harmonious” quality system culture and social structure formation “human harmonious life quality sequence structure chain” namely “human harmonious life quality”.
—— Among them, the ecological environment is the starting element, and the “master control instinct gene” is the key turning point. The two and the subsequent elements form the “harmonious life quality”, and the former human group has completed the transformation and reproduction to human beings.
——” It was during this period that we saw our own species, Homo sapiens (Homo sapiens), that is, anatomically and cogtively known as the modern (ACMH) “.
This step is described by researchers as “the key to all the key transitions in human evolution”.
—— This is the greatest historical variation in the natural life world —— not only “cultivate” the modern people of the highest level in the natural life world, but also opened the history of this new life species to further toward a higher level of civilization.
3. “Harmonious quality of human life” forms the context law of evolution
For example, from the perspective of life and social movement, the previous section “life quality sequence structure chain-human harmonious quality of life” can be abstracted into the basic rhythm of human formation and reproduction ——
Ecological environment variation forms survival instinct, gene guidance, physiological and psychological behaviour variation selects advantage survival target value-survival mode build economic form formation, concept consciousness constructs system culture structure form human life quality
It should be emphasized that, in view of human beings as the natural product of genetic evolution, the specific evolution and quality of this “human harmonious life quality” must be directly subject by the natural ecological environment of different regions. This “regional natural ecological environment” can be summed up as “geographical”. Therefore, the above evolution meter of “harmonious quality of human life” can be further summarized as follows from the perspective of “geography”:
geopolitical ecological geographical instinct gene geopolitical physiological psychological behavior geopolitical survival target value-mode of survival geopolitical economic form geopolitical concept consciousness geopolitical system cultural geopolitical life quality state
Among them, it is related to the concepts of genecology, geo-economy, geopolitics and so on, and is of great significance to the analysis of the basic characteristics of the life movement of human reproduction. This paper gives it the connotation: “the control regional human ethnic physiological and psychological behaviour formed to the specific regional geographical ecological environment and then the survival goal value, survival mode, institutional culture and social control instinct gene”. In short, it is the survival instinct gene that controls the life quality of the geographical group
As in the above, this master control and guidance is not the only decision force, so it cannot fall into the “geopolitical (instinctive) genetic determinism”.
4. Historical evidence of the “overall altruism” of the human survival instinct
In the process of human formation and reproduction, the judgment of “master instinct gene”, “overall altruism” and “qualitative state” actually involves the long-term debate about the basic attributes and characteristics of human “instinct-human nature”.
It should be said that the history of the movement of human life has provided a solid foundation for this assertion.
First, the most authoritative one is the archaeological findings of the University of York in 2021.
Secondly, the “three domestication” in the process of human society —— domestication of animals and plants, natural environment and human self-domestication can be evidence. One of the most noteworthy is the lightness of human bones. This domestication result reflects the main trend of “altruism” of human beings by exploring the harmonious survival mode and the relationship with nature and neighbors, and constantly weakening the violent struggle and survival pressure.
Thirdly, scientific research has proved that human psychological behavior guided by genes is the source of human culture, that is, “genes lead the nose of culture” (Wilson). According to the university of California, Jovanni rossi (Giovanni Rossi) and from Australia, Ecuador, Germany, the Netherlands, British scholars of eight kinds of culture system “prosocial behaviour” analysis found that in daily life, on average every 2 minutes and 17 seconds will appear a demand, and in response to the “prosocial behaviour” the average frequency is 6-7 times to ignore or refuse.[iii] In other words, the “prosocial behaviour” with the connotation of “altruism”, as the subject tendency of the “overall altruism” survival instinct, is the subject expression of human life instinct or “human nature”.
With the above, although human history is full of bloody battles, in the past thousands of years, the scale of the bloody battles in human society has gradually weakened, and the death caused by war has decreased from 30% to 10%, 3% or even 1%.
As far as Chinese history is concerned, since the Xia to 4,100 years, reunification and peace about 2,700 years, and war about 1,300 years.
The above historical facts fully reflect the subject attribute characteristics of human survival instinct and the “overall altruism” of its physiological and psychological behaviour.
Related to the problem of human instinct-human nature attribute is the misleading consciousness of “human nature selfishness” caused by the Gene of Selfish. The problem is that the author Richard Dawkins, in his book, says, “They (genes) cooperate and interact in a complex way, and they also interact with the external environment.” —— This is puzzling.
Is worth thinking, for Dawkins “gene selfish”, not humanistic sociologist but life scientists have sharply criticized, ” in biologists, ‘selfish genes can be used as a point of view, rather than through the scientific verification of scientific theory, not to mention actually’ selfish gene theory is not really accepted by evolutionary biology, but sociologists like this idea, put its mouth, used to explain all creatures is a chemical slave, etc., and then find the human consciousness and the meaning of free will.”[iv]
—— It should be noted that natural life scientists love the criticism of the “genetic selfishness”, which is not only their criticism of biochemical mechanistic materialism, but also their cold criticism of “human selfishness” and the perverse “extreme egoism and free will”.
Sadly, this criticism has not received a positive response in the humanities and sociology class.
In fact, as early as 1975, the famous scientist Edward Q. Wilson tried to build a bridge between scientific experiment and theoretical thinking in natural life science and humanities and social disciplines through his famous book Social Biology, so as to re-understand the human self. Unfortunately, this foresight to break down the disciplinary barriers has suffered from multiple encirclement and slander in nearly half a century, and the misdirection of theoretical consciousness has added infinite damage to the human self-psychological behaviour.
3. “Harmonious quality of human life” and “civilization”
The connotation and characteristics of “the harmonious quality of human life” are clarified, and its relationship with “civilization” needs to be further clarified.
1. “Harmonious quality of human life” and “civilization”
What is “civilization”? There are more than 300 explanations in the world; at least a hundred definitions of “culture”.
It should be made clear that civilization is the rational sublimation of human values, spiritual behavior and institutional and social quality.
Therefore, the definition and connotation of “civilization” should fully reflect the subject attribute characteristics, subject context and subject trend of the “life quality state” formed by human beings.
The characteristics, veins and trends have also given the answer ——
First, scientific research has proved that the formation of human reproduction originated from the formation of “binary dependence overall altruism” master instinct gene;
Second, the “three domestication” in the process of human formation reflects the survival mode and target value of human pursuit of more advantageous “harmonious coexistence”;
Third, although millions of years are full of bloody fighting, but only for nearly a thousand years, the intensity of human bloody fighting has been declining, war deaths from 30% to 10%, or even to 3%, 1%;
Fourth, scholars from the United States, Australia, Ecuador and other countries found that by comparing eight cultures, the average frequency of responding to “prosocial behaviour” was 6-7 times that of ignoring or refusing;
Without listing more, the history of human life movement shows that “harmony-civilization” is the survival instinct formed and reproduction of human beings and the subject attribute characteristics, context and trend of “life quality”.
“Human life mass state” ——
It is the “harmony-civilization” as the essence of human beings;
It is the unique life attribute characteristic endowed by nature life movement;
It is the fundamental “sign” that distinguishes human beings from other life;
Is “human harmony-the life quality of civilization”;
Accordingly, it can be said that:
The essence of human life is “harmony-civilization”;
“Civilization” is the rational sublimation of the essence of human life and the “harmonious life quality”.
By the way, the “civilization” embodied as “harmony” is the “civilization” different from the “culture” composed of rights, beliefs, movements and institutions with multiple objective values.
Therefore, cultures have conflict, and civilizations have no conflict.
2. The mainstream carrier of human civilization and the “community with a shared future for mankind”
Based on history and reality and facing the future, we need to have a deep understanding of the relationship between Chinese civilization and human civilization and “human harmony- -the quality of life of civilization”.
From 2020 to 2022, the journal Nature and the Chinese Academy of Sciences successively published the results of the comparison of the cultural history of the Chinese community and the European and American ethnic groups.[v]
The study found that: in nearly ten thousand years, the genetic gene-blood-cultural civilization of European and American ethnic groups not only continuously promoted the progress of human civilization with the creative advantage of “individual freedom”, but also repeatedly violently shaken, broke and “great blood” due to the continuous ethnic struggle of “individual egoism”;
[vi] During the same period, the Chinese community by “group altruism” guided “geopolitical instinct gene”, “no mass race replacement or extinction”, “super stable structure” genes-blood-cultural civilization —— “harmonious life quality”, constantly promote the Chinese nation and human civilization progress, embodies the human “harmonious-civilization” life essence, become the mainstream of the carrier and characterization of human civilization evolution.
Throughout the ancient and modern, the pursuit of Chinese spiritual culture, all to “harmony-civilization” as the core; “Shangshu” cloud: ” Ke Ming de, to pro nine nationalities. Nine nationalities already harmony, pingzhang common people. The common people are clear, and all the nations are united. “Wang Bi of the Wei and Jin dynasty notes:” Stop things not by power and force, but with civilization, people’s literature is also “……
Into the new century, the Chinese nation young “human destiny community” concept, is declared to the world, “harmony-civilization” is the Chinese nation, the highest advocate and immortal practice, is the character of national civilization culture, is also spread to the world ancient Oriental nation a consistent “world”, world outlook and international values and the new international governance concept.
That goes without saying ——
The belief of “harmonious life quality” and “community of common destiny for mankind” is the historical and contemporary embodiment of “human harmony-the quality of civilization life”;
“Life quality of human civilization” provides a solid foundation of “natural life reason” for the Chinese nation’s “world unity” and “community of future for mankind”; giving confidence in history, today, culture and future!
Conclusion: “childhood” and “re-enlightenment”
1990-2003 USA president Bill Clinton publicly supports the Human Genome Project, but shares 99.9% of the human genome It has been fighting continuously since ancient time sit is known as the Clinton paradox. This is a cold and realistic question.
Here, we still need to analyse —— from the perspective of human survival instinct and life quality
First, human beings are not purely rational animals, and their survival instinct has the “selfish” side. human The bloody struggle, of course, there are many reasons, its ultimately derived from the “selfish” instinct of irrational activation and intensified to the extreme heart.
[vii] In the powerful book “Evil Science”, the author faces the “evil” of tyranny and blood and points out that it is human beings An altruistic harmony and benevolence The loss of “empathy”.
The author also analysed the details of the Nazi “destruction” incident —— “I handed in the list of the Jews —— I was ordered to catch the list —— I just took these people on the train —— I drove the train to Auschwitz —— I was ordered to take them to the shower (gas) room…” interlocking to 6 million people; But every link of the executive to perform “official duties” and guilty —— from the infamous Eichmann to ordinary soldiers and even the public, Arendt, the famous scholar Arendt, reluctantly called it “the evil of mediocrity” thereupon, The blame went to Hitler and the Nazis; thereupon, The “evil” of human beings…
Analysis of the reasons: (1) the environmental burden and intensified self-interest (survival) instinct; (2) genetic variation leads to the lack of altruistic instinct; (3) environmental activation of “attack gene” (MAOA-L); (4) early domestic violence intensified self-maintenance attack, extreme self-interest evil……
CONCLUSION It is still the loss of the instinct of altruistic harmony and love.
Secondly, in the extremely superficial tense of scientific rationality and knowledge and skills, the human cognition of self, self instinct gene and “human harmony-civilization life quality” is an extremely slow and long process. It can be said that until today, human beings are basically in an “unconscious” state of the nature and “qualitative state” of their own life, not to mention that there are many similar “gene-human selfishness” misleading;
As the former Czech president and the famous poet Havel said, the world is lost in the human self.
Third, mankind is far from transforming “harmony-civilized life quality” into active behaviour; as Wilson said, “global culture develops into a new era of technological science, but human humanity still retains the characteristics of the Palaeolithic Age”.[viii]
It is safe to say that as long as the appeal factors exist, especially the transformation of cognitive behaviour is not completed, the irrational cardia of the “selfish” instinct hidden in the human mind will always be interpreted into contradictions, conflicts and bloody battles in a certain period of time and under the cultural background.
go so far as to In modern times, the so-called “great creation” of science is not only a “double-edged sword”. In the eyes of life scientists, it is both few and “rough”, but also like a naïve measure of “ignorant children” in the face of hundreds of millions of years of extremely exquisite, almost incredible mass creation.[ix]
—— Therefore, the human beings, who are the most intelligent, are still in “childhood”, need “re-enlightenment”, and need to re-understand “human harmony-the quality of civilized life” and truly transform it into conscious consciousness and behaviour.
It is the great mission and responsibility of the Chinese nation to return to reality, promote the “community of shared future for mankind” and promote the world to a better future with the “Chinese harmony-civilized quality of life”!
On September 12,2023, held in Xi’an
Unit Zhuang: Professor, teaching at North western Poly-technical University in 1973, deputy director of the Department of Social Sciences in 1986, then director of school Office, vice president of Management Institute, expert of economic reform of Shaanxi Provincial Committee of China, vice president of the Association of China; vice President of National Policy Science Research Association, director of Outlook, Dictionary of Chinese Social Scientists (English edition (2015), etc. Mainly engaged in macro-system, human sociology, modern management, cross-domain economic research.
Ruihua: Bachelor’s degree of Engineering, master of Law from Xi’ an Jiaotong University, and assistant president of Xi’an Chaohua Management Research Institute, senior manager of Morgan Stanley-Huaxin Securities Company. Mainly engaged in automatic control, development strategy research and planning and design.Contact (unzhuang): No.67 Gaoxin Road, Xi’an firstname.lastname@example.org 13991882662 Code:
[i]Scientists refer to the genes that determine the biological traits of life as “the” master gene “, so this paper calls the” master gene “with instinctive attributes as” the master instinct gene “.
[ii] According to the official website of the University of York on February 3,2021, A research team led by Penny Spitkins (Penny Spikins), a professor in the Department of Archaeology at the University of York, published the paper “Theoretical and Methodological Approaches for Ecological Change, Social Behaviour and Human Intergroup tolerance before 300000-30000” [A] Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory (2021) 28:53 75TheoreticalandMethodologicalApproachestoEcologicalChanges, SocialBehaviourandHumanIntergroupTolerance300, 000to30, 000BPAccepted:15December2020/ Published online: 3February2021 ⒸThe Author(s)2021. (Journal of Archaeological Methods and Theory (2021) 28:5375 Theoretical and Methodological Methods to Ecological Change, Social Behaviour, and Tolerance among Human Groups 300,000 to 30,000 BP Accepted: 2020.12.15/ Online)
In this section, the Chinese bold characters with “” below “and” below ” are all Chinese versions of the original research report.
[iii] Liu Yuwei compiled the Prosocial Behaviour in Musculature[A] Beijing, Chinese Journal of Social Sciences, 2023.7.21, page 3.
[iv] Qiu Zilong, Genetic Enlightenment [A] Hangzhou Zhejiang People’s Publishing House, 2021.1,1st edition, p. 132.
[v] Shen Qu, Wang Chuan Paleo genomics Led the Second Scientific Revolution in Archaeology [A], Chinese Journal of Social Sciences, Beijing, 2022.10.20.
[vi] Wang Ming Hui, The Application of Human Remains in the Study of Chinese Civilization, [A] The Chinese Journal of Social Sciences in Beijing, 2023-02-16.
[vii](Ying) Simon. Baron-Cohen, The Science of Evil [A] Gao Tianyu, Guangxi Normal University Press, 2018.9.
[viii] Edward O. Wilson (Edward O. Wilson) Translation of the 25th anniversary edition of Social Biology to the end of the 20th Century [A] Beijing United Publishing Company, November 2021.
[ix]Qiu Zilong, Gene Apocalypse [A] Hangzhou Zhejiang People’s Publishing House, 2021.1, first edition, “Preface”, page 3.
Scientists refer to the genes that determine the biological traits of life as “the” master gene “, so this paper calls the” master gene “with instinctive attributes as” the master instinct gene “.
 According to the official website of the University of York on February 3,2021, A research team led by Penny Spitkins (Penny Spikins), a professor in the Department of Archaeology at the University of York, published the paper “Theoretical and Methodological Approaches for Ecological Change, Social Behavior and Human Intergroup tolerance before 300000-30000” [A] JournalofArchaeologicalMethodand Theory (2021) 28:53 75TheoreticalandMethodologicalApproachestoEcologicalChanges, SocialBehaviourandHumanIntergroupTolerance300, 000to30, 000BPAccepted:15December2020/ Publishedonline: 3February2021 ⒸTheAuthor(s)2021. (Journal of Archaeological Methods and Theory (2021) 28:5375 Theoretical and Methodological Methods to Ecological Change, Social Behavior, and Tolerance among Human Groups 300,000 to 30,000 BP Accepted: 2020.12.15/ Online)
In this section, the Chinese bold characters with “” below “and” below ” are all Chinese versions of the original research report.
 Liu Yuwei compiled the Prosocial Behavior in Mulculture[A] Beijing, Chinese Journal of Social Sciences, 2023.7.21, page 3.
 Qiu Zilong, Genetic Enlightenment [A] Hangzhou Zhejiang People’s Publishing House, 2021.1,1st edition, p. 132.
 Shen Qu, Wang ChuanPaleogenomics Led the Second Scientific Revolution in Archaeology [A], Chinese Journal of Social Sciences, Beijing, 2022.10.20.
 Wang MingHui, The Application of Human Remains in the Study of Chinese Civilization, [A] The Chinese Journal of Social Sciences in Beijing, 2023-02-16.
(Ying) Simon. Baron-Cohen, The Science of Evil [A] Gao Tianyu, Guangxi Normal University Press, 2018.9.
 Edward O. Wilson (Edward O. Wilson) Translation of the 25th anniversary edition of Social Biology to the end of the 20th Century [A] Beijing United Publishing Company, November 2021.
Qiu Zilong, Gene Apocalypse [A] Hangzhou Zhejiang People’s Publishing House, 2021.1, first edition, “Preface”, page 3.