By Shan Yuanzhuang Rui Hua
Abstract: Based on the research results of life science and archaeology for more than 100 years, this paper puts forward a group of views different from the mainstream theories: First of all, “human” only refers to modern people, but does not include Homo neanderthalensis who belong to the same genus but have different races; secondly, human beings were formed 30,000 to 300,000 years ago, and the pre-human race adapted to ecological changes to form “self-interest, altruism, binary dependence, overall altruism” and “master instinct gene”, which guided the pre-human race to choose and construct a “harmonious symbiosis” living style, target value and “harmonious-civilized life quality” of institutional culture and social organization, and gradually mutated and genetically evolved into modern human beings; thirdly, the essence of human life is “harmony-civilization”. The fundamental sign that distinguishes human beings from other animals is not upright, labor, sociality and others, but the “harmony-civilized life quality” in which human beings can form reproduction; fourthly, archaeological research has proved that the uninterrupted inheritance of life genes-blood vessels-cultural civilization and the concept of “community with a shared future for mankind” in China are one of the mainstream carriers and representations of the historical context and essence of human civilization; fifthly, “childhood” human beings have not really understood the essence of self and life, and need to be “re-enlightened” at present.
Key words: Self-interest and altruism binary dependence, Overall altruistic instinct gene, Human harmony-civilized life quality, Civilization, Community with a shared future for mankind, Re-enlightenment
CLC: Q343.1-49 Document identification code: A
“The essence and civilization of human life” is an important theoretical and practical problem in contemporary times. This paper answers from the perspective of compound research of life science and humanistic sociology, what factors dominate the formation and reproduction of human beings? What is the essential difference between human beings and other animals? What is the relationship between Chinese civilization and human civilization?
- “Human Connotation and Formation Signs”
As early as 1975, Edward Q Wilson, an internationally renowned life scientist, pointed out in his Sociobiology that “to understand human nature, we must start with the origin and evolution of life”. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the connotation of “human beings” first.
- The formation and origin of human beings
Human “formation” is different from “origin”.
The origin of human beings is a long and undetermined tense of life initiation. Chinese scholars believe that human beings originated two or three million years ago.
The formation of human beings is a life phenomenon which is different from other living bodies in the relatively certain space-time ecological environment. At the end of the last century, Western researchers proposed that human beings were formed in 143,000 years based on genome structure; In 2021, research by York University and other institutions in the UK revealed that 30,000-300,000 years ago, the endocrine system of human ancestors adapted to ecological changes mutated, which guided the formation of a harmonious life quality-dominated way of life, enabling human beings to form; American scholar Michael Tomasello also put forward this conclusion in Natural History of Human Relations and Morality.
- Human connotation and its sign of formation
On the analysis of the Essence and Civilization of Human Life, there is an important prerequisite archaeological conclusion: the extinct Homo neanderthalensis and Denisovans and modern races are classified as “Hominidae”, “Homo” but different “races” by the academic circles.
This naturally raises the question: Does the current definition of “human” include both modern races and Homo neanderthalensis and Denisovans?
-This problem is directly related to the nature and “sign” judgment of the difference between human beings and other animals.
Here, an important basis for the analysis is that life sciences and archaeological discoveries have revealed that over the long historical time and space, the endocrine system that adapts to ecological changes The dominant genes that determine the biological traits of living organisms, namely the “dominant instinctual genes” ⅰ and the factors such as human physiological and psychological behavior, extended guided survival methods, target values, and even institutional, cultural, and social factors that guide their formation, constitute a unique “life quality sequence structure chain” (referred to as “human life quality”) and life processes that enable human reproduction.
In short, human formation itself is a life movement system and process composed of “life quality” dominated by “master instinct gene” formed by adapting to ecological variation.
Therefore, if the answer to the question of “human connotation” is “including”, then on the issue of human “formation”, there will be 70-80% difference in “human life quality” due to different ecological environment, endocrine system, ‘master instinct gene, living style, target value, cultural civilization, institutional social behavior, etc. in the formation process of modern people, Homo neanderthalensis and Denisovans, which will naturally lead to judging the essential attributes of life movement of different hominid species
-This is the case with realistic theory and practice.
Therefore, although there are many similarities in DNA sequences and physiological habits between Denisovans and modern people, which can be described as “close relatives”, human scientific research has conclusively determined that “Homo sapiens”, as the ancestor of modern people, is the only species under human beings.
Therefore, this paper holds that such close relatives should be excluded from “human beings”, and the following analysis on “standards” should be carried out according to this
Upright, as a posture of animal limb behavior, is not unique to human beings;
Making tools is a way for many animals to seek survival, and it is not unique to human beings;
Labor, Denisovans will also use tools and engage in labor “, but it is not human;
Giant brains, Nigerians have bigger brains than humans;
Self-consciousness, many creatures in nature have the self-consciousness that dominates the synergistic dynamic response between nervous system and living organs;
Sociality, life science research finds that all animals live in the form of “social society”, so sociality is the basic life attributes of all “social society” species;
It should be noted that the above-mentioned so-called sign “is actually the existence of physical behavior posture or physiological elements shared by many animal life bodies, or has the generality of” sociality “, so it can not reflect the particularity of” life quality “that guides human life movement and formation and reproduction, and cannot reflect the unique essence of human life”, so it cannot be used as the fundamental “sign” that distinguishes human beings from other animals.
In a word, in the long historical period, “the quality of human life” is a unique form of essential characteristics of life in which human beings can form and multiply, and life variation chooses the context of genetic evolution, so it can be used as the fundamental symbol of the difference between human beings and other animals.
At this point, new problems are naturally mentioned:
What are the connotations and essential attributes of this “human life quality” and this “symbol”?
- The essential attribute of “human life quality”
1. The premise of exploration
Scientific research for more than 100 years has provided an important premise for exploring this topic, that is, genes are the “master control” factor guiding the formation and reproduction of human beings.
A basic conclusion of life science research is that up to now, “survival” is still the “first demand” of human life, and this demand comes from the “master instinct gene” in the “genome” which contains all the genetic information of life.
Since Mendel’s Law was rediscovered in 1899-1909 and William Johnson coined the word “gene”, life scientists began to make in-depth research on the relationship between genes and human beings. Archibald Garrod, a famous scientist, summed up the academic consensus and pointed out that genes determine the direction of human development, while variation makes human beings different from each other.”
What needs to be made clear is that this kind of “master control” is not the only deterministic force, so it can’t fall into “gene determinism”. In the long process of human formation and reproduction, we can see that besides genetic factors, there are at least the synergistic effects of ecological environment, sexual reproduction, ethnic relations, life consciousness, and the relationship between life formation sequence elements. However, scientific research has also proved that among these synergistic factors, the genes that dominate the characteristics of human life forms are the most important, so that life scientists call these genes “master control genes”-“master instinct genes”.
2. Master control instinct gene and “human harmonious life quality”,
In the past century, the research findings have given a clear answer to what genes and life “quality” control the formation of human beings-
As early as 1938, De Rijin, one of the founders of Paleolithic archaeology in China and a famous paleontologist, pointed out that “cooperation”, “connection” and “integration” of life from bacteria and cells to human beings are the “rising” forces in the evolution of life.
In 2019, Wilson put forward the concept of “altruistic gene” when summing up the research achievements of life sciences in the past 60 years in Genesis, and pointed out that “altruism is inseparable from every great change in history from a lower level of biological organization to a higher level of biological organization-from cells to organisms, from organisms to society”.
In the new century, the most cutting-edge significance is a major archaeological discovery made by researchers from York University and Liverpool University in 2021, which reveals the formation context and attribute characteristics of the “human life quality state” in which human beings can be formed. ⅱ
According to the research report, “among all the key changes in human evolution, the modern human transformation occurred 300,000 to 30,000 years ago”. Swedish scientist Svante Paabo, who won the Nobel Prize in 2022, revealed the genetic differences between existing humans and former humans, and proved that modern humans first appeared in Africa about 300,000 years ago.
The report reveals that due to the deterioration of ecological environment variation, the endocrine system of one of many pre-human ethnic groups have changed. The report points out that “we have come to the conclusion that the increasingly harsh environment may lead to changes in human hormones and emotional responses, which will lead to an increase in tolerance among groups, that is, changes in social behaviors related to self-domestication”;
Although researchers use the word “possible”, based on the scientific research results of the past century, it can be concluded that after a long period of variation, selection and genetic evolution, this physiological change not only leads to the continuous and stable increase of “inter-group tolerance” and then harmony, tolerance and interdependence “, but more importantly,” once the physiological change exceeds a certain critical point, inter-group cooperation may become a stable state, resulting in increased dependence on various resources and high social ties.
The above findings have multiple significant implications-
First of all, reveal the genetic attributes of survival instinct. The gene that controls the formation and reproduction of human beings is not only the coexistence and dependence of self-interest and altruism, but also the “survival instinct gene” of “self-interest and altruism binary dependence and overall altruism” with “harmony” as the main physical state;
Secondly, this “master instinct gene”, while mutating and evolving itself, works together with ecological environment, life consciousness, sexual reproduction and other factors, guiding this pre-human group to cooperate with other “groups” may have become a stable state, resulting in increased dependence on various resources and high social ties:
Thirdly, the above-mentioned main control power factors made this human ancestor finally choose the “harmonious” subjective survival goal value and the “harmonious coexistence” subjective survival mode with higher survival probability, relatively better survival state and quality, more frequent communication, increasing activity field and scale and more survival advantages;
Fourthly, lay the foundation for building a “harmonious” social and cultural change;
Fifthly, what is more far-reaching is that the life sequence elements of the above-mentioned newborn species have both antecedents and consequences, showing a “two-way evolutionary structural chain”-
Ecological environment variation⇔Changes of endocrine system⇔Forming binary dependence, overall altruistic master instinct gene + multiple life plastic dynamics⇔Increased tolerance among groups⇔Group news cooperation forms a stable state⇔Increased dependence on resources and high social ties among groups⇔Choose the Survival Goal Value of Superior “Harmony” Quality-Survival Style⇔Constructing “Harmonious” Quality, Institutional Culture and Society⇔Forming the sequence structure chain of human harmonious life quality state, that is, “human harmonious life quality state”.
-Among them, the ecological environment is the starting factor, and the “master instinct gene” is the key turning point. Together with the follow-up factors, they form a “harmonious life quality state” for human reproduction, which guides this former human group to complete the transformation and reproduction into human beings.
-“It was during this period that we saw the emergence of our own species Homo sapiens, which is called modern man (ACMH) in anatomy and cognition”.
This step is called the key to all the key changes in human evolution by researchers.
-This is the greatest historical variation in the world of natural life-it not only “cultivates” the highest-level modern people in the world of natural life, but also opens the historical prelude to guide this new life species to a higher level of civilization.
3. The law of the formation and evolution of “the quality of human harmonious life”
For example, from the perspective of life and social movement, “the sequence structure chain of life quality state and the harmonious life quality state of human beings” in the previous section can be abstracted and combed as the basic rules for the formation and reproduction of human beings.
The ecological environment has changed⇔
Forming survival instinct genes⇔
Guidance physiological, psychological and behavioral variation⇔Choose advantage, survive goal value-living style⇔Build an economic form⇔Form a sense of concept⇔Constructing institutional culture⇔Fabrication forms the quality of human life….
It should be emphasized that, in view of the fact that human beings are the natural products of natural variation, selection and genetic evolution, the concrete evolution and quality of this “harmonious life quality of human beings” must be directly subject to the natural ecological environment of different regions. This kind of “regional natural ecological environment” can be summarized and expressed as “geography”. Therefore, the above-mentioned evolution rhythm of “human harmonious life quality” can be further combed as follows from the perspective of “geography”:
Geo-ecology ⇔ Geographical instinct gene ⇔ Geo-physiological, psychological and behavioral ⇔ Geographical survival goal value survival style ⇔ Geo-economic form ⇔ Awareness of geographical concept ⇔ Geographical system culture⇔Geographical life quality……
Among them, “geographical (instinctive) gene” is related to the concepts of geo-ecology, geo-economy and geopolitics, and is of great significance to analyze the basic characteristics and laws of human life movement. This paper endows it with the connotation: “the dominant instinct gene that controls the physiological and psychological behavior of regional human ethnic groups and then their survival goal value, survival mode, institutional culture and society”. In short, the survival instinct gene that controls the life quality of local ethnic groups is the same as the aforementioned, and this kind of dominant control and guidance is not the only deterministic force, so it cannot fall into “geographical (instinct) gene determinism”.
4. Historical evidence of “overall altruism” of human survival instinct
In the above-mentioned process of human formation and reproduction, the assertions about “master instinct gene”, “overall altruism” and “qualitative state” actually involve the long-term debate on the basic attribute characteristics of human “instinct-humanity” in academic circles.
It should be said that the history of human life movement has provided a solid foundation for this assertion.
First of all, the most authoritative one is the archaeological research discovery of York University Research Institute in 2021.
Secondly, the “three domestications” in the process of the formation of human society-animal and plant domestication, natural environment domestication and human self-domestication can be used as evidence. Among them, the most noteworthy one is the lightening of human bones. This domestication result reflects the main trend of “altruism” that human beings constantly weaken the life survival instinct of violent struggle and survival pressure by exploring a more harmonious and symbiotic way of life and the relationship with nature and neighborhood ethnic groups.
Thirdly, scientific research has proved that human psychological behavior guided by genes is the source of human culture, that is, genes lead the nose of culture “(Wilson). According to the analysis of prosocial behavior in eight cultural systems by Giovanni Rossi of the University of California and scholars from Australia, Ecuador, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain, it is found that in daily life, there will be a need for help every 2 minutes and 17 seconds on average, and the average frequency of responding to” prosocial behavior “is 6-7 times that of ignoring or rejecting. ⅲ In other words,” prosocial behavior “with altruistic” harmony “connotation, as the subjective tendency of psychological behavior guided by the overall altruistic” survival instinct gene of human beings, is the subjective expression of human life instinct or daily “humanity”.
In line with the above, although human history is full of bloody struggles, the bloody scale and intensity of struggles in human society have gradually weakened in the past thousand years, and the death caused by war has dropped from 30% to 10%, 3% or even 1%.
As far as Chinese history is concerned, from summer to 4100 years, there were more than 2700 years of unification and peace, and about 1300 years of war and division.
The above historical facts fully reflect the subjective attribute characteristics of “overall altruism” of human survival instinct and its physiological and psychological behavior.
5. Dialectical “Gene Selfishness Theory”
What is related to the problem of human instinct-human nature attribute is the misleading consciousness of “selfishness of human nature” caused by the book Selfish Gene. The problem is that Richard Dawkins, the author of the book, says at the same time: “They (genes) cooperate and interact with each other in intricate ways, and at the same time cooperate and interact with the external environment”-which is puzzling.
It is worth pondering that Dawkins’ “gene selfishness theory” is sharply criticized by life scientists instead of humanities sociologists. “In the view of biologists, selfish genes can be regarded as a viewpoint at most, rather than a scientifically verified scientific theory, not to mention that selfish gene theory has not been really accepted by evolutionary biology, but sociologists like this formulation very much and talk about it, which is used to explain that all living things are slaves of certain chemicals, and then seek the meaning of human consciousness and free will.” ⅳ
-It should be noted that natural life scientists’ criticism of this kind of humanities and sociologists’ love for “gene selfishness theory”, which has not been scientifically verified, is not only their criticism of biochemical mechanical materialism, but also a cold criticism of “human selfishness theory” and its perverse “extreme egoism libertarian theory.
It is regrettable that this criticism has not received a positive response in the field of humanistic sociology.
In fact, as early as 1975, Edward Q. Wilson, a famous scientist, tried to build a bridge of scientific experiment and theoretical thinking between natural life sciences and humanities and social sciences through his famous work Sociobiology, so as to re-understand human self. Unfortunately, this foresight to break down the discipline barrier has suffered multiple encirclement and slander in the past half century, and the misleading of theoretical consciousness has added boundless damage to human self-psychological behavior.
Third, “Human Harmonious Life Quality” and “Civilization”
The connotation and characteristics of “harmonious life quality of human beings” need to be further clarified, and its relationship with “civilization” needs to be further clarified.
- “Human Harmonious Life Quality” and “Civilization”
What is “civilization”? There are more than 300 interpretations in the world; There are at least one hundred definitions of culture closely related to it. It should be made clear that civilization is the rational sublimation of human values, spiritual behavior and institutional social quality.
Therefore, the definition and connotation of “civilization” should fully reflect the subject attribute characteristics, subject context and subject trend of the “life quality” of human beings’ formation and reproduction.
The characteristics, context and trend of this subject attribute, history and research findings have also given the answer-
First, scientific research has proved that the formation and reproduction of human beings began with the master instinct gene of “binary dependence and overall altruism” formed by adapting to the variation of ecological environment;
Secondly, the “three domestications” in the process of human formation reflect the survival style and goal value of human beings pursuing more advantageous “harmonious coexistence”;
Third, although human beings have been full of bloody struggles for millions of years, the intensity of human bloody struggles has been declining in the past thousand years, and war deaths have dropped from 30% to 10%, even to 3% and 1%;
Fourthly, scholars from the United States, Australia, Ecuador and other countries have found that the average frequency of responding to “prosocial behavior” is 6-7 times that of neglect or rejection;
Needless to say, the history of human life movement shows that “harmony-civilization” is the main attribute characteristic, context and trend of human survival instinct and “life quality”.
To sum up:
“The quality of human life
It is a unique living quality state in which human beings with the essence of “harmony-civilization” form and multiply;
It is the unique life attribute characteristic given to human beings by the life movement of nature;
It is the fundamental “sign” that distinguishes human beings from other life;
It is “human harmony-the quality of civilized life”;
Accordingly, it can be said:
The essence of human life is “harmony-civilization”;
“Civilization” is the rational sublimation of the essence of human life and the “harmonious quality of life”.
Incidentally, it is pointed out that the “civilization” embodied as “harmony” is different from the “culture” composed of rights, beliefs, movements and institutions with multiple objective values
Therefore, there is a clash of cultures, but there is no clash of civilizations.
2. The mainstream carrier of human civilization and the “community with a shared future for mankind”
Based on history and reality and facing the future, it is necessary to deeply understand the relationship between Chinese civilization and human civilization, “human harmony-the quality of civilized life”.
From 2020 to 2022, Nature and Chinese Academy of Sciences successively published the comparative research results of Fu Qiaomei’s research team of Chinese Academy of Sciences on the cultural history of Chinese ethnic groups and European and American ethnic groups for nearly 10,000 years. “ ⅴ
It is found that in the past ten thousand years, the genetic-consanguinity cultural civilization of European and American ethnic groups has not only continuously promoted the progress of human civilization with the creative advantage of “individual freedom”, but also violently shaken, broken and “changed blood” many times due to the continuous derivation of ethnic struggles by “individual egoism”;
At the same time, the Chinese ethnic group was guided by “group altruism” and “geographical instinct gene”, and there was no large-scale ethnic substitution or extinction.ⅵ The super – stable structure of genetic genes – blood relationship – cultural civilization – “harmonious life quality” constantly promoted the progress of Chinese nation and human civilization, embodied the life essence of human “harmony – civilization”, and became one of the mainstream carriers and representations of the evolution of human civilization.
Throughout ancient and modern times, the pursuit of Chinese spiritual culture is all centered on “harmony-civilization”; “Shangshu Yaodian” says: ” Carry forward great morality and make the family harmonious; After family harmony, coordinate the people and achieve social harmony; After social harmony, we can coordinate the interests of all princes, so that all countries can live in harmony.” Wang Bi’s note in Wei and Jin Dynasties: “Comfort subjects through humanistic education”……
In the new century, the Chinese nation’s high concept of “community with a shared future for mankind” not only declares to the world that “harmony – civilization” is the highest advocacy and immortal practice of the Chinese nation and the character of national civilization and culture, but also spreads to the world the consistent world outlook, international values and new international governance concepts of the ancient oriental nation.
It goes without saying–
The Chinese nation’s belief of “harmonious life quality and” community with a shared future for mankind “is the historical and contemporary embodiment of” harmonious and civilized life quality of mankind “;
The “quality of human civilization life” provides a solid and heavy “natural life rational foundation” for the Chinese nation’s belief in “Great Harmony in the World” and “Community with a shared future for mankind”; Give the Chinese nation life confidence, civilization confidence and cultural confidence in history, today and towards the future!
Conclusion: Childhood Human and Re-enlightenment
From 1990 to 2003, US President Bill Clinton publicly supported the “Human Genome Project”, but he was puzzled by the struggle since ancient times that 99.9% of human genomes are identical, which was called “Clinton Paradox”. This is a cold and realistic problem.
Here, we still need to analyze it from the perspective of human survival instinct and life quality
First, human beings are not purely rational animals, and their survival instinct genes contain “self-interest”. Of course, there are many reasons for the bloody struggle of human beings, which finally comes from the irrational activation and intensification of self-interest instinct.
In the powerful book “The Science of Evil” ⅶ, the author faces the tyrannical and bloody “evil” from ancient times to the present and points out that it is the “loss of empathy” of human altruism, harmony and benevolence.
At the same time, the author analyzes the details of the Nazi “destruction of Judah” incident-“I handed in the list of Jews-I was ordered to arrest people according to the list-I just took these people on the train-I drove the train to Auschwitz-I was ordered to take them to the shower (poison gas) room…”. The interlocking has caused 6 million people to die; However, the executors of every link are innocent by performing “official duties”-from the notorious Eichmann to ordinary soldiers and even the people, which makes the famous scholar Arendt helplessly call “mediocre evil”, so the responsibility is pushed to Hitler and Nazis; Therefore, the “evil” of this human being gradually accumulates….
A detailed analysis of the reasons: (1) the environmental burden intensifies self-interest (survival) instinct; (2) Gene variation leads to loss of altruistic instinct; (3) Environment activates “attack gene” (MAOA-L); (4) In the early years, domestic violence intensified self-sustaining attacks and extreme self-interest……
The conclusion is still the loss of the instinct of altruism, harmony and benevolence.
Secondly, under the tense of extremely superficial scientific rationality and knowledge and skills, human cognition of self, self-instinct gene and “human harmony-civilized life quality” is an extremely slow and long process. It can be said that until today, human beings are basically in an unconscious state of the essence and “quality” of self-life, not to mention many misleading similar to “gene-selfishness of human nature”; a typical case for this “lagging in human cognitive consciousness” is, a small number of scientists and theorists have begun to realize from the perspective of human psychological behavior that from the perspective of human instinct and acquired habits, and the “prosocial behavior” with altruistic harmony connotation is the “basic tendency of the human psychological behavior world”, which has been happened millions of years or 200,000-300,000 years after the formation of human beings, thus at least 143,000 years later, the 1960s. It is not difficult to imagine how difficult and distant it would be for the vast majority of mankind to realize the great significance of “harmonious civilization” to themselves and to the human world, and to transform it into a universally conscious psychological act.
As Javier, a famous poet of former Czech President, said, the world is lost in human self.
Thirdly, human beings are far from transforming “harmony-the quality of civilized life” into conscious and active behavior; As Wilson said, “the global culture has developed to a new era of technology and science, but human nature still retains the characteristics of Paleolithic Age”. ⅷ
It can be said with certainty that as long as the appeal factors exist, especially the transformation of cognitive behavior is not completed, the irrational boiling of self-interest instinct hidden in the depths of human hearts will always be interpreted as contradictions, conflicts and bloody struggles in a certain period of time and cultural background.
As for the so-called “great creation” of modern human science, it is not only a double-edged sword “in the eyes of life scientists, it is both rare and rough”, but also like the naive measures of “ignorant children” in the face of the extremely exquisite and almost incredible massive creation of genetic life for hundreds of millions of years. ⅸ
-Therefore, human beings who claim to be the highest wisdom are still in their “childhood” and need to be enlightened again. They need to re-understand “human harmony-the quality of civilized life” and truly transform it into self-consciousness and behavior.
It can be predicted that in the foreseeable “10,000-year later future”, human beings will no longer take “survival” as the ultimate goal of life movement, and under the combined action of the ecological environment of survival and development of “all human civilization” and “new human consciousness” and “mutation, creation, selection, evolution, inheritance” more suitable for survival and development, the “instinct” of new human beings will move towards duality on the basis of the old “dual dependence and overall altruism”, and the human survival goal value and survival mode guided by it will then “human civilization life quality system” A major transformation ensued; As the concrete form of this major transformation, that is, on the basis of the interdependence and continuous movement of the two main social systems of real capitalism and socialism, you have me and I have you, a “social-capitalist system” that absorbs the advantages of civilization that integrates the two major subjectivist systems, and “merges two and one” will become the subjective nature of human society.
It is the great mission and responsibility given to the Chinese nation by the times to return to reality, hold high the “community with a shared future for mankind” and push the world towards a better future with Chinese harmony-civilized life quality “!
September 12, 2023 Xi’an
Shan Yuanzhuang: Professor, taught at Northwestern Polytechnical University in 1973, served as deputy director of the Department of Social Sciences in 1986, later served as director of the school office, vice president of the School of Management, and concurrently served as an economic reform expert of the Shaanxi Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China and vice president of the Shaanxi Economic Association; In 1993, he was appointed as the deputy director of China Equipment Management Training Center by the Ministry of Aeronautics and Astronautics; He is also the vice president of the National Policy Science Research Association, the national policy member of Xinhua News Agency, and the head of the national outstanding think tank. He was included in the Dictionary of Chinese Social Scientists (English Version), and was invited to attend the Fourth Global Think Tank Summit (2015). His papers were included in the conference anthology. He mainly engaged in macro-system, human sociology, modern management and cross-domain economic research.
Rui Hua: Bachelor of Engineering from Xigong University and Master of Law from Xi’an Jiaotong University. He used to be the senior manager of Morgan Stanley-Huaxin Securities Company and assistant to the president of Xi’an Chaohua Institute of Management Science. Mainly engaged in automatic control, development strategy research and planning and design.
Contact (Shan Yuanzhuang): No.67 Gaoxin Road, Xi’an; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel.:13991882662 Zip Code: 710075
- Scientists call the genes that determine the biological traits of living organisms “master genes”, so this paper calls this “master gene” with instinctive attribute function “master instinct gene”.
- According to a report by official website, University of York, UK on February 3, 2021, the research team led by Penny Spikins, a professor of archaeology at University of York, published a paper “Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Study Ecological Change, Social Behavior and Human Tolerance before 30,000-000 Years” [A] Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory (2021) 28: 5375 Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Ecological Changes, Social Behavior and Human Intergroup Tolerance 300,000 to 30,000 BPA accepted: 15 Decree 2020/Published online: 3 February 2021 © The Author (s) 2021. (Journal of Archaeological Methods and Theories (2021) 28: 53-75 “Theories and Methodologies of Ecological Change, Social Behavior and Tolerance among Human Groups 30,000 to 30,000 BP” Accepted: 2020.12.15/published online)
In this subsection, the bold Chinese characters with “” and “lower horizontal line” are the Chinese translation of the original research report.
- Liu Yuwei compiled “Prosocial Behavior is Ubiquitous in Multicultural Background” [A] Beijing Journal of Chinese Social Sciences, July 21, 2023, 3rd edition.
- Qiu Zilong’s Gene Revelation [A] Hangzhou Zhejiang People’s Publishing House, 2021.1, First Edition, p. 132
- Shen Qu and Wang Chuanchao, Paleogenomics Leads the Second Scientific Revolution of Archaeology [A] Beijing Journal of Chinese Social Sciences 2022.10.20.
- Wang Minghui, Application of Human Remains in the Study of Chinese Civilization [A] Beijing Journal of Chinese Social Sciences 2023-02-16.
- (English) Simon Barron-Cohen’s the Science of Evil [A] Translated by Gao Tianyu, Guilin Guangxi Normal University Press, September 2018
- Edward O. Wilson translated Preface to the 25th Anniversary Edition of Mao Shengxian’s Sociobiology and Sociobiology to the End of the 20th Century [A] Beijing Beijing United Publishing Company, the first edition in November 2021.
- Qiu Zilong’s Gene Revelation [A] Hangzhou Zhejiang People’s Publishing House, 2021.1, First Edition, Preface, Page 3.